Brief History

Section 8 - Principals

Paul Pangaro, PhD

Dr Pangaro holds a Bachelor of Science Degree in Humanities and Computer Science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and a PhD in Cybernetics from Brunel University (England). As an undergraduate at MIT he worked on the team headed by Dr Nelson Max in the production of computer generated mathematics films which have won international awards. For his contributions to the Drama program as actor, director and manager, he received the MIT Stewart Award for outstanding contribution to extra-curricular activities. After graduation in 1974 he became a member of the Research Staff of the MIT Research Laboratory of Electronics, working on simulation models of brain function in Jerry Lettvin's lab. He then joined the Research Staff of the Architecture Machine Group of MIT under Nicholas Negroponte, to work in computer animation and early color computer graphics projects. He was a frequent contributor to the Visible Language Workshop of the MIT Architecture Department, giving seminars and summer workshops on user interfaces to aid the design process.

After leaving MIT in 1977 Pangaro moved to New York City and worked freelance. He was contracted by the public relations section of Bell Laboratories, writing script treatments and advising on interactive exhibit design and computer graphics. In 1980 he became Senior Systems Designer for MetaForm Incorporated (New York) under contract with IBM. He then relocated to Washington where he worked with the Capital Children's Museum (Washington DC) in the design and development of computer based exhibits and software, and wrote and directed a course in microcomputers attended by Members of Congress.

In 1981 Pangaro became Research Associate at the Centre for Systems Research and Knowledge Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, with Dr Gordon Pask, under contract to the US Army Research Institute. As part of his long-time association with Pask he completed his Doctorate in Cybernetics from Brunel in 1987, on the subject of computable dynamic models of cognition.

In 1982 the PANGARO Companies were formed. In a series of major contracts for the Admiralty Research Establishment (UK) over a six year period, large-scale software systems, based on the most advanced software development environments available, were constructed for the exploration of the relationship of strategy, action and computer support in complex decision making situations. Tools were developed for the general problem of capturing and characterizing normally-internal, cognitive models during human learning and decision making.

In 1984 Pangaro became a Director of Washington Resources, an educational and cultural consulting firm. In the same year he founded the Washington Area Symbolics Users Group and was President for five years. He was President of the National Symbolics Users' Group from 1987 to 1990.

PANGARO Incorporated is exceptional in the fields of consulting and software research, in its continued success in the broad commercial application of cybernetic principles to real-world problems. For example, in 1986 Pangaro was approached by the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation of New York because of the strength of his reputation in the cybernetic community. His work in cognitive modelling for the UK appeared to be immediately applicable to nuclear power generation. After feasibility and proof-of-concept phases, this relationship has culminated in the Emergency Operating Procedures Support System (EOP-SS). This stand-alone system has combined very large and complex software subsystems to produce a state-of-art and cost-beneficial intelligent advisor and trainer of operators for emergency procedures. The EOP-SS incorporates significant improvements over conventional expert systems, intelligent hypertext and the problems of systems integration. Pangaro was responsible for the architecture of the EOP-SS as well as most of the advances of technique represented in the software of the EOP-SS including graphical interfaces for specifying rules to the expert system, and adaptive, conversational access to the knowledgebase.

In further applications of cybernetic concepts and artificial intelligence technologies, Pangaro has been engaged since 1987 by a planning department of Du Pont where he contributes regularly to the process of their corporate re-design at social, technical, production and marketing levels. Support services include research, presentations, reports, and seminar design and production for high-level management. Similarly Pangaro contributes to the design and development of new products and services for high-tech companies including NYNEX, Lotus, and Xerox.

Throughout his career, Pangaro has given papers and demonstrations of software at many conferences, including the American Society for Cybernetics, Society for General Systems Research, MIT Media Laboratory, Harvard Graphics Conference, ACM SIGGRAPH, National Educational Computing Conference, Human Factors Society, Conference on Computers in Education (Wales) and Machine Intelligence in Defence (England). His articles have also appeared in Data Training, Creative Computing, and Systems Research Journal, and his work has been reported in InfoWorld, Seybold Reports, IEEE and many other reviews of computer-aided instruction software. He was contributor to the television series FASTFORWARD as advisor and on-screen presenter. Pangaro was Vice-Chairman of the Gordon Research Conference in Cybernetics for 1988, and Associate Editor of Cybernetic Magazine, published by the American Society for Cybernetics.

Walter Lee, Jr

Mr Lee received his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Virginia, where he subsequently pursued graduate studies (MA and ABD) while working as a part-time instructor. His primary research interests were the effects of technological change (in particular, the printing press) on the forms of social and economic organization. In 1979 he attended the University of Pittsburgh where he received a Masters in Business Administration.

Lee then joined the Corporate Planning and Development Staff at Prime Computer, where he provided decision support to senior management in the conceptualization and resolution of major business issues and problems. This support usually took the form of simulation modeling and game theory, and microeconomics. Specifically he was responsible for design of a corporate planning model; establishing a framework for evaluating appropriate levels of R&D investment and leverage; market modeling; product pricing; and mergers & acquisitions analysis. Lee was appointed Manager of Corporate Planning and Development Staff, after which he moved into marketing as Manager of Business Planning, with a charter to develop and implement the company's first product life-cycle management system. Accomplishments for this period included the implementation of this charter in business plans for the company's computer-aided design, transaction processing and workstation ventures.

In 1983 Lee joined Apollo Computer as Manager of Treasury Operations, where he had full responsibility for the day-to-day management of the Treasury function. Major achievements centered on creating and implementing appropriate systems, policies and procedures to manage the company's cashflow and financing requirements in an environment of explosive growth, when the company grew from $17 Million to $215 Million in two years while adding 12 foreign subsidiaries.

Lee moved to Symbolics, Inc, as Assistant Treasurer in 1985, where he was responsible for the Treasury and Corporate Development functions. He established Treasury systems in foreign exchange, cash management and risk management. On the Corporate Development side, he was responsible for the creation and management of a vendor leasing program, structuring of an R&D partnership for Symbolics' Ivory processor, and instituting the Symbolics Investment Program to fund strategically important start-ups and spin-offs.

Lee met Paul Pangaro under the auspices of the Symbolics Investment Program in early 1987 while investigating commercial applications for THOUGHTSTICKER on Symbolics systems. Lee felt strongly that there was exceptional commercial potential for the product THOUGHTSTICKER. Further discussion and investigation led to their joining forces on marketing of the product in the context of R&D development projects. As Senior Principal Lee has also brought his considerable experience in research, quantitative and qualitative modeling, financial planning and economic theory to the varied projects of PANGARO Incorporated.
PANGARO Incorporated History - Table of Contents